Ubuntu 22.04 alias “Jammy Jellyfish” comes with GNOME in combination with the display communication protocol Wayland, which has become the Ubuntu standard for all common graphics chips. However, in terms of screen sharing, some applications have the problem that only a black image is transferred when sharing a whole screen. This is due to incomplete support for this feature.
There are several possible solutions. The easiest one is probably to disable Wayland and continue to use Xorg instead by uncommenting the line
Or look for temporary alternatives (Firefox instead of Chromium if you only want to use web applications) and inform the maintainers (for example MicrosoftTeams) about the circumstance.
Maybe you could also use
xdg-desktop-portal-gnome like so.